How do you tolerate judgmental people


is a specific one generalizing pattern of judgment, with which you can usually classify social information (properties, expectations) and automatically add the information that appears to be appropriate. Simplifying typologies are very popular in this context, because those who decide to use typologies can indulge the illusion that they have seen through the complexity of the world. The Social psychology understands a stereotype to be an oversimplified image of people, institutions or events, the essential characteristics of which are shared by a large number of people.

Accordingly, stereotypes are judgment implications in which the perceiver or cognizer uses a quasi-economic principle of economy. Orientation is made easier by processing the complex perceptual situation with the help of a selection of a few features from all existing features. Stereotypes are thus Settingsthat draw attention to certain classes of information and away from others. Stereotyping produces two effects, one Dichotomization and a Generalizationi.e. the difference between the categories (group, organization, nation) is made larger, the difference within the category smaller. Stereotyping can thus be identified by three characteristics: the establishment of a suitable person category, the agreement on assigning a number of personality traits to this person category, and assigning these traits to every person who belongs to this relevant category. Stereotyping is ultimately Constructions of realitywhich serve to reduce complexity and stabilize identity by means of the construction of alterity.

Stereotypes often, but not necessarily, go along with this Prejudice a cooker. i.e., with positive or negative predispositions towards the members of the respective category. As a textual, pictorial or symbolic implementation of the perception pattern, the stereotype serves the discursive construction of collective identity and thus belongs to that area of ​​social processes that needs to be uncovered if one wants to better understand the function of identity and alterity (cf.Abe, 2006). According to Tajfel (1981), as socially shared constructs, they fulfill the following functions: positive differentiation, causal explanation and social justification. Sterotyping are Part of social identity, because people do not define themselves exclusively as individuals, but also as members of groups.

As we know from representative studies, behind stereotypes or prejudices are only rarely negative personal experiences behind the negative image that one makes of a group of people, rather the rejection of a certain group of people is the syndrome of group-related enmity. Anyone who has prejudices against Muslims, for example, is very likely to have reservations about Jews, blacks, immigrants, women, homosexuals, homeless, disabled and long-term unemployed. As a rule, it is not special features such as the headscarf that people reject, but rather the foreign group itself, as long as it can be distinguished from one's own.

It is assumed that the basis for the tendency to think in terms of stereotypes is innate, because in order to cope with their complicated environment, people have to classify everything around them, including their fellow human beings, into categories to which typical characteristics are automatically and unconsciously assigned. This creates a stereotype, whereby in many situations one is also forced to assign oneself to a category, i.e. one becomes from an individual to a group member, and at this moment two mechanisms begin to take effect: the group dynamics and a change in one's own self-concept. In everyday life it is enough to mention a nationality and for the brain “the Turks” are a very homogeneous group that is clearly different from “the Germans”. In addition, as soon as you assign yourself to a group, this group is automatically used to construct your self-image, whereby it is important for a positive self-image to make your own group look as good as possible. This happens either by upgrading your own group or by devaluing all other groups, attributing unpleasant characteristics to them or denying good ones. One suspects that the fear is behind it, that the position of one's own group is being questioned, that resources or cultural values ​​could be lost, that a potential superiority of others endangers one's own self-concept. Once developed, prejudices are very difficult to break down, especially if they are socially tolerated (see Lehnen-Beyel, 2011).

Enemy images are stereotypes of particular quality, because they are those stereotypes that construct the relation of the familiar and the familiar to the other or foreign as a threat relation. The other or the other are no longer only constructed in their alterity, i.e. as an otherness whose function consists primarily in profiling one's own, but nonetheless does not question the parallel existence of one's own, but here the construction of alterity becomes even more acute Enemy. Images of the enemy serve to ascribe qualities such as immediacy and threat to the relation of alterity. Within such a relationship shaped by enmity, what is one's own can only be preserved in the long term by resolving or annihilating the hostile other, and in the short term only by containing and deterring it. Images of the enemy are stereotypes with a high appellative, manipulative and mobilizing effect. The basis for this function is often - not always - the vagueness of content and the cognitive inconsistencies of enemy image constructions, which it keeps open for new tactical arrangements (cf. Ahbe, 2006).

Collective perceptions of self and others are, like everything else, historically and culturally determined, because who is perceived as different, strange or threatening in a culture also depends on their own cultural imprint, which is subject to permanent change.

Prejudices and negative attitudes arise very quickly, because studies show that even a short stay in a deranged district is enough to change social attitudes towards distrust. Newcastle University students had to drop questionnaires in mailboxes at given addresses in two different areas of the city. They were then asked to rate the area they had just experienced. In fact, the three quarters of an hour's walk through the respective area was enough to adapt the emotional state of the students in the categories of “social trust” and “paranoia” to the level of the residents. Which external factors influence the psyche so drastically is known from many earlier works on the topic - and it fulfills all clichés: Littering garbage, overflowing and scribbled mailboxes, smeared walls, broken glass, bicycles chained to a fence despite prohibition signs: that brings people to it to feel insecure. But this also means that you are less considerate yourself and more likely to throw paper on the street; on the other hand, you tend to be more law-and-order attitudes and prejudices.

1. Definition
ste | reo | type : fixed, unchangeable, constant [recurring]: a bad novel with stereotypical phrases, characters. meaning: hackneyed, worn down, frozen [fixed] standing, ↑ formulaic, phrase-like (Duden, 1985, p. 612).

2. Definition
“In addition to the reflexes, another typical form of movements occurs from the quarter of a week onwards, which THIELEN (1979) called stereotypes: repetitive and almost identically executed flexions, extensions or rotations of parts of the body. They first appear on the legs and feet (kicking). A little later, stereotypical movements of arms and hands follow. These stereotypes are likely to be precursors of more mature forms of motor behavior ”(Schenk-Danzinger, 2006, p. 91).

3. Definition
“... consciously and defined a stereotype as ”(Stroebe, 1981, p. 39).

4. Definition
The term “stereotype” comes from the printer's language and was first mentioned in 1798 (Ashmore & Del Boca, 1981). "Stereotype" was originally the name for a printing press in which fonts (stereotypes) were deformed in order to adapt to the printing press. In 1922 Walter Lippmann (1961) adopted the term “stereotype” to describe and characterize everyday observations in connection with human behavior. He introduced the term “stereotype” in a social and political context. Stereotype was defined by him as a mainly culturally determined, conceptual image which, with the effect of a filter, objectively perceived the situation subjectively of the social environment and thus as cognitive schemes that serve the effective processing of information in a complex environment (cf. Frey, 1995, p . 56).

5. Definition
"The stereotype should also be an evaluative idea of ​​people or groups of people (5), the prejudice should represent an evaluative-moral and beyond that hasty and unreliable judgment about people or collectives." "They [the stereotypes] are primarily images in a category formed by the individual to justify his love or hate prejudice ”(Guilarte, 2007, p. 5).

Allport scale

Gordon Allport developed a scale in 1954 to measure Prejudice in a society in which he distinguished five escalating levels:

  • Disparaging remark (defamation): The prejudices are expressed unreservedly towards others (like-minded people but also strangers).
  • Avoidance: Contact with the rejected group is avoided, even if inconvenience must be accepted.
  • Discrimination: There are efforts to keep members of the rejected group away from any public institutions (e.g. educational and recreational institutions, social institutions) and to deny them access to certain privileges and rights, but also to professions and residential areas. The institutionalized form of racial discrimination is racial segregation.
  • Physical violence: The greater the intensity of the emotions, the greater the willingness to use violence against the rejected group (e.g. destruction of property, physical attacks, etc.)
  • Destruction: e.g. mass murders and genocide

Literature and sources

Ahbe, Th. (2006). The petty bourgeoisie as the frog prince.
WWW: (09-11-21)
Allport, Gordon W. (1954). The Nature of Prejudice. Perseus Books.
Der Duden, (1985). The dictionary of meanings. Word formation and vocabulary. Mannheim: Mannheimer Morgen Großdruckerei und Verlag GmbH.
Frey, C. (1995). The intrapersonal balance theory in leadership behavior. Prerequisite for the development of leaders. Wiesbaden: German University Publishing House.
Guilarte, Pawel, (2007). Thesis. The “Poland stereotype”. A qualitative study of foreign students in Krakow. University of Linz: Institute for Sociology, Department for Political and Development Research.
Lehnen-Beyel, Ilka (2011). Fear fuels Islamophobia and xenophobia, Die Welt from February 19, 2011.
Schenk-Danzinger, Lotte (2006). Developmental psychology. Vienna: G & G Verlagsgesellschaft mbH.
Stroebe, W. (1981). Group conflict and prejudice. Origin and function of social stereotypes. To water. Bern Stuttgart Vienna: Verlag Hans Huber.
Tajfel, H. (1981). Human groups and social categories. Cambridge: University Press.

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